Correction, Retraction, Expression of Concern

Editor should consider publishing correction if minor errors that do not affect the results, interpretations and conclusions of the published paper are detected. Editor should consider retraction if major errors and/or misconduct that invalidate results and conclusions are detected.

Editor should consider issuing an expression of concern if there is evidence of research or publication misconduct by the authors; there is evidence that the findings are not reliable and institutions of the authors do not investigate the case or the possible investigation seems to be unfair or not conclusive.

The guidelines of COPE and ICJME are taken into consideration regarding correction, retractions, or expression of concern.

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