Although published studies help readers find resources on a topic, they do not always accurately reflect the original work. As a result, authors should cite original works whenever possible. On the other hand, referencing too many original works on a subject can waste space. Citing a few essential original works typically works as well as large lists. Furthermore, resources can now be added to electronic editions, and users can readily find articles via electronic literature searches.

Accepted but not yet included articles are published as Early View and references to these articles should be given as “Advance Online Publication”. Reference should not be made to “personal communications” unless it is a fundamental subject that cannot be obtained from a general source. If a reference is made, the name of the contact person and the date of the communication should be indicated in parentheses. For scientific articles, authors should obtain written permission from this source and a document showing the accuracy of the communication. The author(s) are responsible for the accuracy of the references. All sources should be cited in the text. References should be listed alphabetically.

Reference Style and Format

TESAM Academy Peer-reviewed Journal adopts the 6th edition of the APA (American Psychological Association) reference style for in-text citations and references. For information about APA 6th Edition:

– American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: APA.


The author(s) are responsible for the accuracy of the references. All sources should be cited in the text. References should be cited as in the examples below.

Reference Usage

In-Text Reference Notation: In citations, “and” should be used between authors, not the “&” sign.


Arpacı and Kuyu’s (2000) work… (Do not put the apostrophe in the parentheses)

(Arpacı and Kuyu, 2010, p. 72)

(Arpacı, Kuyu ve Huysuz, 2000, pp. 12-13)

For details, refer to the Basic Citation Formats table.

Citation Order: Citations for parentheses should be arranged alphabetically.


Source Cited: A quotation from another reference within a reference should be formatted as follows.


(Cited from Torgerson, 1958, pp. 1-8, Baykul, 2000; Zengin, cited from 1957, Pınar, 1999)

Other Considerations:

  • Emphasis: Bold should not be used in the text, except for the basic variables in headings, tables and figures. Points to be emphasized should be made with quotation marks [“ ”] or italics.
  • Direct Citations: Direct quotations should be indented from the left and right according to the normal text, and italicized in 11 points.

Click to view basic citation and bibliography formats.

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